Dual Fluid Reactor – a new concept of highly-efficient nuclear reactor

Seminarium Zakładu Energetyki Jądrowej i Analiz Środowiska
Speaker and affiliation: 
Professor Konrad Czerski, University of Szczecin and Institut für Festkörper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Berlin; Dr Armin Huke, Institut für Festkörper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Berlin
Tue, 2016-03-15 10:30
Room 208 in the Science & Technology Park building in Świerk

Dual Fluid Reactor (DFR) is a new concept of high-temperature nuclear reactors based on fast neutrons. The name reflects the fact that liquid fuel and liquid coolant circulate two separate loops, which is a new idea in contrast to other known concepts of reactors based on some liquiid fuel (e.g. Molten-Salt Fast Reactor). Two independent loops allow to independently optimize operational parameters of fuel and coolant. A high power density and small core may result. This in turn makes feasible more expensive constructional materials, better resistant to corrosion at high temperatures.

DFR has been designed also with nuclear power better cost-effectiveness in mind. The EROI (Energy Return On Investment) coefficient may be more than 20 times higer that in coal-fired power plants or nuclear power plants equipped with second-generation reactors. Electricty may then be produced about six times cheaper. High operational temperatures make feasible production of hydrogen, which in turn makes liquefying or gasification of coal an economically viable option.

In basic version of the reactor, uranium trichoride (liquid fuel) would be pumped through a series of interconnected silicon carbide pipes immersed in liquid lead (coolant). The fuel of a temperature close to 1000°C would be continually cleaned of fission products by a dedicated pyrochemial system using the distillation/rectification principle; the system would be capable to separate individual chemical elements. A very high negative temperature coefficient makes the DFR a very safe, self-regulating reactor. Dependence of reactor operating temperature on load (supplied power) would be very small, therefore the reactor could cooperate very smoothly with renewable energy sources, output of which may vary within a wide range. A high fuel conversion coefficient means that fuel already spent in 2nd or 3rd generation reactors might be further used. An opportinity to significantly reduce volume of nuclear waste becomes feasible.

An advanced version of the reactor would use metallic uranium. The energy of emitted neutrons would then be much higher, and construction of the reactor might be significantly streamlined.

Pespectives to develop a DFR test facility and to construct a DFR prototyope will also be presented .

Konrad Czerski, czerski@physik.tu-berlin.de
K. Czerski1,2, A. Huke2, G. Ruprecht2, D. Weißbach1,2, S. Gottlieb2, A. Hussein3
1 Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, ul. Wielkopolska 15, 70-451, Szczecin, Poland
2 Institut für Festkörper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr. 2, 14050 Berlin, Germany
3 Department of Physics, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada. V6P 3S6

All interesed are invited
Professor Mariusz Dąbrowski
Eng. Michał Spirzewski, MSc

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